Eye Tracking Technology – Today world is revolutionized with the more and more inventions in the field of science and technology.
These inventions are leaving mesmerizing impacts upon the whole world. Among all these miraculous inventions, eye tracking technology is also changing the world. The way we look at the world is far different from the way centuries back.
Eye tracking technology is meant to aid humans in various sections like product design, psychology (psycholinguistics), research on the visual system and much more.
But, before we proceed with its impacts upon the world. We need to understand what is eye tracking and how does it work, first.
Eye Tracking and its Working
Eye tracking is a process that measures our point of gaze. This gaze is measured by an eye tracker that carefully tracks the eye movements and its position.
This process of eye tracking involves the role of infrared light, pupil of an eye and reflection of light as the process of visualizing occurs.
• Working of an Eye Tracker
When infrared light enters the pupil and the cornea of an eye, reflections are produced. These detectable reflections are recorded by an infrared camera which is placed between the cornea and pupil.
This process of optical tracking and recording is called PCCR, pupil center corneal reflection.
For accuracy of gaze, source of infrared light is necessary because prominent frontier of pupil and corneal reflection depends upon it.
With normal camera it is not easy to properly differentiate between the pupil and corneal reflection due to poor light.
Normal visible light produces unrestrained spectral reflections, while on the other hand, infrared produces precise differentiable reflections.
Eye Tracking Glasses and Screen Based Eye Tracking
Under eye tracking technology, screen based eye tracking and eye tracking glasses are the two basic types that are developed. These two types are in extensive use in the research and various other fields.
• Eye Tracking Glasses
Eye tracking glasses are also known as mobile trackers. These allow the free movement of the person and is helpful in the virtual and real world. The negative point of these glasses is, they can divert their recordings if they found too much movement in their surroundings.
• Screen Based Eye Tracking
Screen based eye tracking is also known as remote and stationary tracking. In this type, the respondent has to sit in front of a stationary monitor.
This sitting forms a screen based content via interaction. In this type of eye tracking, the limit of eye tracking is very less, but the person can move sufficiently freely.
This type is used mostly in labs where pictures, videos, websites and other offline sources can produce stimuli.
Uses of Eye Tracking
Eye tracking devices have the following uses :
1. Eye tracking technology can be helpful in psychology. In various psychological tests, this technology is used to measure the level of attention or its distribution
2. It is also used in the healthcare sector for diagnosing autism and other neurological disorders.
3. Eye tracking is also helpful in neuromarketing. This technique is helpful to detect which things are liked or ignored by the people, on the basis of these senses, product designs, layouts and sales strategies can be formulated.
Eye Tracking Metrics
Eye tracking technology has various metrics, upon these metrics the research is based. Some of the most common and important are given below:
- Gaze points : Point of gaze is the basic and most important metric of the tracking process. One gaze point shows the tracking of one sample
- Areas of Interest : While specifying the regions that need to be focused, this AOI can help to generate comparison tables
- Monomania : When eyes focus an object for some time period then this creates monomania and is a metric of an eye tracking process
- Fixation sequence : this metric can help to detect the monomania sequence, that which object caught the attention of the person first
- TTFF (Time TO First Fixation) : It helps in defining the time of the fixation sequence and that when the first AOI was developed
How Eye Tracking is Revamping the World?
The eye technology and its uses are not only paving ways for data collection, problem solving, but are also driving us towards entirely new paths.
Those new paths are helping us a lot with our daily life routines as well as in serving the humanity. This can be elaborated clearly by the below given example:
1. Role in Sports
The recent use of eye tracking process has revelad that how it can be helpful to examine activities like games and sports.
It can be helpful in intensively active sports like cycling, baseball, cricket, football and karate. It’s this use has been justified in the world cup matches of 2018.
2. Role in Neuroarchitecture
Neuroarchitecture is a new and emerging field. This field helps in designing the fact based maps of the buildings or of other projects.
Eye tracking has been used in this field along with EEG to detect the response of participants towards various factors like room size, design structure, height of the building and much more.
This approach helps architectures to develop perfect designs and more flexible options for their clients.
3. Role in Medical Treatment
The medical field has been a forefront of the new researches. Even eye tracking has found its way in this field.
Eye tracking can help to predict the accuracy of performance of doctors, nurses and the digital movement in the equipments. During surgery, it is also helpful to detect minor changes in the patients digital body function rates.
Moreover, it has excessive importance in instrumental calibration as well.
4. Role in Mental Disorder Diagnosis
This application of eye tracking is similar to the above mentioned example in a way that both are linked to medical fields.
But, here, eye tracking can play a significant role in the detection of various mental and neurological disorders like autism, poor response towards actions, poor visual abilities etc.
5. Role in Tracking and Learning
Research has found that the learning abilities can be greatly enhanced via eye tracking procedures. It can aid the teacher to detect his actions that are more effective for students as compared to his other words and actions.
Moreover, eye tracking can continuously refine the learning procedure by allowing persons to test new designs and ideas in contrast to the existing ones.
It seems like our present and future is greatly framed and structured with the uses of eye tracking technology. This technology has its arms extended towards so many fields that you cannot count in one day.
Despite of its already exisiting enormous applications, scientists are still working to find more ways of its maximum utilization.
It is fair to say that, eye tracking technology is the thing on which we can count for our future inventions on the basis of empirical researches.
Written by : Ms Amanda Rebecca